In the Name of Allah; Most-Merciful, Most-Compassionate.
Chivalry could be defined in a multitude of ways; what follows in an attempt to describe chivalry from an Islamic perspective and with a few examples - as explained and taught by our scholars, may Allah preserve them.
Chivalry is an internalized power or strength possessing insight that reacts in order to give victory to Truth. Sincerity is its final goal, good character is its guide, mercy is its inward aspect and bringing about change is its outward manifestation. Anything that does not combine all of these attributes is not chivalry. It is the ability to differentiate intentions; to know when a decision is made for personal reasons and that which is done for the Truth. Chivalry is the ability to bring about positive change to the self and society based on truth and for the sake of truth.
Blind power is not chivalry; insight is required for self-correction, even in the case of mistakes. Demonstration of power is not its goal or method, except when used to uphold and give victory to the Truth. Responding to ones desires with a resounding ‘no’ is an aspect of internal chivalry, and that is why the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said that the strong man is the one who can overcome his own self when he is angry.
The champion and leader of the people of chivalry is our beloved Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him); he was never angry for himself but only became angry for the sake of Allah while upholding and protecting the Truth. When animal entrails were thrown on his back (peace and blessings be upon him) he did not take out personal vengeance. Today such a person is considered weak, however chivalry is based upon principles - principles which are not broken for bane or mundane challenges. When the religion of Islam was attacked and insulted Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) stood against that - strongly and firmly. He reacted to give victory to the Truth and this is chivalry. Transgression and oppression have nothing to do with chivalry. Taking another person's right is not chivalry. Rather, it is based upon principles. It is enacted through good conduct and mercy, it is built with insight and a struggle to give victory to Truth.
Having insight and wisdom allows for a person of chivalry to realize that power is to be used selectively and wisely. We can find endless examples in the Prophetic Biography and from the Companions. For example, Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) in how he embraced Islam, how he made hijra in open daylight or how he walked the streets as leader of the Muslims to ensure their safety and satisfaction. Or, Fatima (may Allah be pleased with her) who, as a young girl, stood up to remove the filth that was dumped on the Prophet (peace be upon him) by the enemies of Islam while he was praying.
May Allah build us in chivalry. May He bless us with its understanding and honour this Ummah with its implementation internally and externally.